Background to the Study
Housing has been viewed as the process of delivering a large number of residential buildings on a permanent basis, with sufficient physical infrastructure and social amenities, in planned, decent, safe and sanitary neighborhoods (The Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, 2002; Ibrahim and Mbamali, 2013). Rapid growth in population creates high demand towards shelter and efficient supply and distribution of basic utilities and services for city dwellers (Bala and Bustani, 2009). In most urban centers, the problem of housing is not only restricted to quantity but to the poor quality of available housing units (Ajayi and Omole, 2012). According to Coker et al., (2007), a satisfactory home is one in a suitable living environment with portable water, adequate shelter and other services and facilities. The housing condition of a country is a pointer to the health motivation, economic well-being and the social circumstances of her citizens. Housing affects the life of an individual as it provides the space for protection, privacy, economic activities, recreation and livelihood (Ajayi and Omole, 2012).
The introduction of Public Private Partnership in housing in Nigeria started in the early 1990s with the introduction of National Housing Policy (NHP) (Ademuyi, 2010). According to Ukwayi et al., (2012), the poor performance of the National Housing Policy in meeting its set goals and objectives led to a comprehensive review. A new approach to the partnership between the government and private sector in providing housing and infrastructure was initiated in the year 2000 (National Technical Working Group on Housing, 2009). According to Ukoje and Kanu, (2014) the partnership between the Federal Capital Territory Administration (FCTA) and the private sector started in the year 2000 due to the inability of government to meet the high demands for housing and its needed infrastructure. The purpose of partnership was to reduce the burden of providing housing and infrastructure on the part of the government and increase the participation of the private sector (Ibrahim and Kwankur, 2012). The FCTA (2008), identifies twenty seven districts allocated for the housing scheme under the PPP arrangement between (2000-2011). Ibrahim and Kwankur (2012), identifies access roads, pipe borne water, drainages, sewer systems, electricity, recreational parks, shopping complexes and street lights as part of the infrastructure to be provided under the PPP housing scheme. Abdullahi and Aziz (2010), asserted that the growing population witnessed in Abuja and the inability of government to meet its obligation towards the provision of housing and infrastructure gave rise to the partnership. In recent times, the development of cities and its infrastructural needs around the world is achieved by joint efforts of both the government and private individual efforts and initiatives. Nigeria operates a three tier system of government; the federal government, State government and local government, all required to provide affordable and comfortable housing and infrastructure to the people. The delivery of basic utilities and services especially housing, is partly the responsibility of the government, which has been handicapped by financial constraints, political instability and many other issues (Ademiluyi and Raji, 2008).
In developing countries such as Nigeria, poor housing delivery has been attributed to insufficient mechanisms and systems for land allocation, funding, mortgage institutions and infrastructure (Bala and Bustani 2008; Encarta, 2007). One major part of urban problem with respect to housing is the poor state of the infrastructures (Ajanlekoko, 2001; Ajayi and Omole, 2012). Giddings (2007), observed that one of the most serious policy constraints to scaling up investments in housing and urban infrastructure in Africa is that in most countries in the region the sector is not accorded the priority it should command in national planning strategies and therefore receives short shrift in attracting budgetary resources. Ajibola et al., (2013) identified that where urban infrastructure is adequately provided and efficiently managed, productive and profitable land uses are usually attracted towards such area. Thus, the study intends to assess the provision of infrastructure under the PPP housing scheme in Abuja 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem As urban areas in developing countries continue to experience rapidly growing population, there are signs that despite the important role infrastructure plays in physical and socio-economic development of individuals and communities, and the efforts made in tackling the situation, the problem is escalating (Ibem, 2009). According to Umoh (2012), insufficient infrastructure is one of the major problems facing the housing scheme under the PPP arrangement. According to Abdullahi and Aziz (2010), there are many estates in districts allocated for PPP housing scheme for more than ten years without the provision of infrastructure.
Code Wit News (2013), reported a dispute between a private estate developer and residents of Jubilation Bethel Estate, Lokogoma, the residents complained about no provision of access roads, drainages, electricity and street lights by the developers. The estate falls under the districts allocated for housing scheme under the PPP arrangement. The quality and coverage of infrastructure services have a major impact on living standards and economic growth, yet it is estimated that two billion of the world‟s poor people lack access to adequate sanitation, two billion lack access to electricity, one billion lack access to clean water (United Nations, 2002). This is to say that infrastructure is a basic necessity in any community as it contributes to the wellbeing of the inhabitants yet the provision is limited. The remarkable rise in population, number and size of cities over the past few years have manifested in the acute shortage of dwelling units which resulted in overcrowding, high rents, poor urban living conditions, and low infrastructure services and indeed high crime rates (Ajayi and Omole, 2012). The reality in many urban areas in Africa is that there is poor delivery of infrastructure necessary for housing, this is due to insufficient finance and capacity to deliver, coupled with greater responsibilities and mandates for municipalities, and the increasing demands of rapid urbanization (Kihato, 2012). UN-HABITAT estimates that worldwide close to three billion people will need access to housing and basic infrastructure services over the next 25 years. This will require 35.1 million housing units per year or 96,150 per day or 4,000 per hour in order to meet the demand for housing and basic infrastructure over the next 25 years. This statistics calls for concern due to the importance housing and infrastructure play in our day to day lives. 1.3 Justification of Study
There is an obligation by the government and private developers to meet the growing demand of infrastructure in estates under the PPP arrangement hence the need for this study. Nubi (2003), describes infrastructure as the aggregate of all facilities that allows a city to function effectively. These facilities consists of electricity, pipe-borne water, drainage, waste disposal, roads, sewage, health, education, telecommunications and institutional structures like police station, fire fighting stations, banks and post office. Ajibola et al., (2013) identified that where urban infrastructure is adequately provided and efficiently managed, productive and profitable land uses are usually attracted towards such area. Infrastructure provision forms a vital component to housing development and dependent on relevant authorities delivering sufficient infrastructure (Kihato, 2012). Urban infrastructure and housing provision are interwoven. Without infrastructures, housing cannot be sustainable and hence should be treated together (Otegbulu and Adewumi, 2009). According to Pritika and Piyush (2012), housing and basic infrastructure plays a vital role in providing an enabling environment or the overall development and urbanization and all municipal attempts to provide better housing and basic infrastructure for its residents through policies and enabling conditions. The study is geared towards enhancing the provision of infrastructure in housing estates under PPP arrangement in Abuja. 1.4 Aim and Objectives
1.4 Objectives The objectives are:
1. To articulate the role of government and private developers in the provision of infrastructure in housing estates under PPP arrangement
2. To assess the factors affecting the provision of infrastructure in housing estates in Abuja.
3. To ascertain the compliance of private estate developers to the provision of infrastructure.
1.5 Scope and limitation 1.5.1 Scope The scope of this study is to assess the provision of infrastructure under the PPP housing scheme in Abuja, Nigeria. 1.5.2 Limitation The study is limited to the provision of infrastructure in estates under PPP housing scheme between 2000 to 2011 in Abuja.