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1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
A hospital is an institution for health care that provides patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Usually, hospitals are funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies or charities, including funds by direct charitable donations. Historically, however, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders. Modern-day hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses.
1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITAL.
Hospitals are distinguished by their ownership, scope of services, and whether they are teaching hospitals with academic affiliations. Hospitals may be operated as proprietary (for-profit) businesses, owned either by corporations or individuals such as the physicians or they may be voluntary-owned by non-profit corporations, religious organizations, or operated by federal, state, or city governments. Voluntary and non-profit hospitals are usually governed by a board of trustees, selected from among community business and civic leaders, who serve without pay to oversee hospital operations.
1.1.1 COMMUNITY HOSPITALS
Most community hospitals offer emergency services as well as a range of inpatient and outpatient medical and surgical services. Community hospitals, where most people receive care, are typically small, with fifty to five hundred beds. These hospitals normally provide quality care for routine medical and surgical problems.
Some community hospitals are nonprofit corporations, supported by local funding. These include hospitals supported by religious, cooperative, or osteopathic organizations. In the 1990s, increasing numbers of not-for-profit community hospitals have converted their ownership status, becoming proprietary hospitals that are owned and operated on a for-profit basis by corporations. These hospitals have joined investor-owned corporations because they need additional financial resources to maintain their existence in an increasingly competitive industry. Investor-owned corporations acquire not for-profit hospitals to build market share, expand their provider networks, and penetrate new health care markets.
1.1.2 TEACHING HOSPITALS
Teaching hospitals are those community and tertiary hospitals affiliated with medical schools, nursing schools, or allied-health professions training programs. Teaching hospitals are the primary sites for training new physicians where interns and residents work under the supervision of experienced physicians. Non teaching hospitals also may maintain affiliations with medical schools and some also serve as sites for nursing and allied-health professions students as well as physicians-in-training.
Most teaching hospitals, which provide clinical training for medical students and other health care professionals, are affiliated with a medical school and may have several hundred beds. Many of the physicians on staff at the hospital also hold teaching positions at the university affiliated with the hospital, in addition to teaching physicians-in-training at the bedsides of the patients. Patients in teaching hospitals understand that they may be examined by medical students and residents in addition to their primary “attending” physicians.
One advantage of obtaining care at a university-affiliated teaching hospital is the opportunity to receive treatment from highly qualified physicians with access to the most advanced technology and equipment. A disadvantage is the inconvenience and invasion of privacy that may result from multiple examinations performed by residents and students. When compared with smaller community hospitals, some teaching hospitals have reputations for being very impersonal; however, patients with complex, unusual, or difficult diagnoses usually benefit
from the presence of acknowledged medical experts and more comprehensive resources available at these facilities. A teaching hospital combines assistance to patients with teaching to medical students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school, nursing school or university.
1.1.3 PUBLIC HOSPITALS
Public hospitals are owned and operated by federal, state, or city governments. Many have a continuing tradition of caring for the poor. They are usually located in the inner cities and are often in precarious financial situations because many of their patients are unable to pay for services. The federal government matches the states’ contribution to provide a certain minimal level of available coverage, and the states may offer additional services at their own expense.
1.1.4 GENERAL HOSPITAL
This is the best type of hospital, it is set up to deal with many kinds of diseases and injuries, and normally has an emergency department to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health.
1.1.5 DISTRICT HOSPITAL
This is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care; and specialized facilities for surgery, plastic surgery, childbirth, and bioassay laboratories.
1.1.6 SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL
This is a special type of hospital meant for a particular case like trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children’s hospitals, seniors’ (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems, certain disease categories such as cardiac, intensive care unit, neurology, cancer center, and obstetrics and gynecology, oncology, or orthopedic problems.
A medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic, and often is run by a government agency for health services or a private partnership of physicians (in nations where private practice is allowed). Clinics generally provide only outpatient services.
1.2 MANUAL WORKLOW OF THE HOSPITAL
In a hospital where patients are taken care of, when a patient visits the hospital, the patient is an inpatient if he/she is admitted while is an outpatient when he/she is not admitted. Or a patient is rushed in case of emergency. Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and then leave as outpatients without staying overnight; while others are admitted and stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months as inpatients. Hospitals usually are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others often are described as clinics. When a patient enters the hospital the following sequence of operation is carried out.
First and foremost, the patient is registered in the card/registration room, and then the patient goes to the nurses workbench for examination (vital signs), the nurses then carries the patient folder to the doctors workbench for diagnosis.
After the diagnosis, the patient is then sent to the laboratory for test or the patient is sent to the pharmacy for collection of drugs; the pharmacy section checks the patients prescribed drugs and cost them before the folder is sent to the bill office for billing.
After diagnosis the patient can also be referred to another clinic or to see a consultant in the same hospital. For example he/she may be referred for radiology services (CT scan, MRI, and ultrasound) or to special services like dental care. There may also be possibilities for surgical services. The inpatient may recover fully and be discharged or die and will be given a death report.
The purpose of the hospital management system is to automate the system for storage and easy retrieval of data, flow of information and management of hospital.
1.3 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF HOSPITAL ACTIVITIES
A Hospital is a place where patients visit to for medical check up or diagnosis and treatment. Hospitals provide facilities like:-
- Consultation and diagnoses of diseases by doctors.
- Provision of treatment facilities.
- Facility for admitting Patients (providing beds, nursing, medicines etc.)
- Immunization of patients/children.
Various operational works are done in a hospital; all these works are done manually using papers as follows:
- Recording information about the patients that visit a hospital for treatment.
- Generating bills.
- Recording information related to diagnosis given to patients.
- Keeping record of the Immunization provided to children/patients.
- Keeping information about various diseases and medicines available to cure them.
These are the various jobs that are done in a hospital by the operational staff and doctors; information about patients is recorded manually by just writing the patients name, age and gender. Whenever the patient visits, his information is stored again;
Bills are generated by recording price for each service provided to patient on a separate sheet and at last they all are summed up.
Diagnosis information to patients is generally recorded on the document, which contains patient information. It is destroyed after some time to decrease the paper load in the office.
Immunization records of children are maintained in pre-formatted sheets, which are kept in a file.
Information about various diseases is not kept as any document.
Doctors themselves do this job by remembering various medicines.
All this work is done manually by the receptionist and other operational staff and lots of papers are needed to be handled and taken care of. Doctors have to remember various medicines available for diagnosis and sometimes miss better alternatives as they can’t remember them at that time.
1.4 PROBLEMS OF THE MANUAL SYSTEM
Lack of immediate retrieval: -The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information e.g. – To find out about the patient’s history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in inconvenience and waste of time.
Lack of immediate information storage: – The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to store them.
Error prone manual calculation: – Manual calculations are error prone and takes a lot of time, this may result in incorrect information. For example, calculation of patient’s bill based on various treatments.
Preparation of accurate and prompt reports: – This becomes a difficult task as business intelligence is difficult, this is due to lack of information collation (ability to put information together and analyze them).
1.5 NEED FOR AUTOMATED SYSTEM.
The need for an Automated Hospital Management System can be summarized as follows:-
Planned approach towards work: – The activities in the organization will be well planned and organized. The data will be stored properly in data stores, which will help in retrieval of information and in enforcing security.
Accuracy: – The level of accuracy in the proposed automated system will be higher. All operations would be done correctly and accurately. In practice, errors are not completely eliminated, they are reduced.
Reliability: – The reliability of the proposed system will be high as information is stored properly and securely.
No Redundancy: – In the proposed system utmost care would be taken to ensure that no information is repeated anywhere, in storage . This would assure economic use of storage space and consistency in the data stored.
Immediate retrieval of information: – The main objective of the proposed system is to provide for a quick and efficient retrieval of information. Any type of information would be available whenever users require them.
Immediate storage of information: – In manual system, lots of problems are encountered in trying to store large amount of information.
Easy to Operate: – The system should be easy to operate and should be such that it can be developed within a short period of time and fit the limited budget of the user.
1.6 PROJECT OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this project is to design an automated system for controlling the flow of patient’s data in the hospital. The aim is to solve most of the problems encountered in the hospital using the old and manual system of medical administration.
In the manual system, almost all the patient folders in the records have to be accessed by the staff for every folder request. The integrity and security of the data in database system are considered here from the point of view of freedom from risk. The risks are those events that threaten the data; threaten to destroy or corrupt it to prevent its use, threaten to access it illicitly or to steal it. The objectives of the project include:
- Systematic data collection.
- Efficient data storage
- Accurate data communication and manipulation
- Enhanced data security so that the hospital data and information are stored centrally in a secure fail safe database that has a secondary back-up database.
- Reduced system cost.
1.7 THE PROJECT SCOPE
The hospital management system is capable of supporting any number of staff of the hospital and each module of the package runs independently without affecting other modules. This means that all departments of the hospital work independently.
SERVER EDITION (SE): This edition is Microsoft window based automated hospital management system server that will be running on the oracle database oracle database.
CLIENT EDITION (CE): This edition is a Microsoft window based Hospital Management System client, which must be developed and pre-installed in each of the client computers in the hospital before use. It provides the forms to be used.
INTRANET EDITION (WE): This edition is a web-based client and multi-platform system. It requires no modular installation and sits in any computer architecture.