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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study

Crime is as old as man and has increased over the years in magnitude and
intelligence due to the technological progress and development of the
world today. Crime could be considered as the greatest societal ills and is
dominated in areas with low employment rates, high poverty, high
inequality, racial discrimination and general disequilibrium of available
resources. Crime is a universal phenomenon that is threatening the
security of various countries in varying degrees (Aremu and Ahmed,
2011). Crimes at all levels have been and continue to be a danger to
general peace and comfort. It increases uncertainty and scares away
foreigners or investors to a particular region. The world at large has
always put in place strict security measures to minimize criminal activities
and promote protection of life and property.
Security is the state or feeling of being safe and protected. Security
measures have been put in place at national and international levels to
ensure the protection of life and property at sub regional and cross border
regions, otherwise defined as the degree of resistance to, or protection
from harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a
person, dwelling, community, nation, or organization. The importance of
security cannot be overemphasized.The violence perpetrated in some parts
of the country in recent time constitutes public disorder which
makessecurity very important for all human beings regardless of one’s
status in the country (Aremu and Ahmed, 2011). Security differs from
place to place and usually related by the level of crimes but with the main
objective of protecting life and property.
Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and since then has recorded
increasing dimensions and frequencies of crime. With the increasing
hardships due to the high poverty and inequality rates,poverty in Nigeria
remains significant despite high economic growth. With 63% living below
$1 a day in 2012 and income inequality increasing from 0.43 in 2004 to
0.49 in 2009 (Wikipedia, 2013), the line between poverty and crime or
insecurity is very thin as several empirical evidencesopine that poorer
areas have higher insecurity than relatively richer areas. It has been noted
that Nigerian cities are conducive areas for criminal activities because it
provides the anonymity needed for personal crime as well as environment
for a specialized and organized underworld. Theft, fraudulence, arson,
forgery and other criminal activities have become a means of survival. In
recent time Nigeria has become worried and disturbed by the menace of
crime.

Poverty in Nigeria, like in most developing nations of Africa, is
widespread andseems to be on the increase by the day and when poverty
is coupled with high levelsof economic and social aspirations, the stage is
set for criminal activities – particularlyofficial corruption, robbery and
dealing in illegal goods and services. (Odumosu, 1999). “Based on the
premise that the poor are lazy and refuse to work hard, it is not too far of a
stretch to argue that they will “choose” crime because it is the easy way
out” (Umaru et al., 2013). The differential crime rates of the different
states of Nigeria could therefore be a reflection of the poverty level of the
states alongside other factors like culture and the security strength of the
state.
There exist several security outfits in Nigeria that simultaneously operate
in Enugu state. In fact, the present relative safety of Enugu state could be
attributed to the different security agencies available in Enugu State.
Nigerian states do not operate state public security such as the police and
the army, they operate from the national level. However the security
agencies found in Enugu state include; the NigerianPolice, Nigerian
Army, State Security Service, Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC),
Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), National Drug
Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), Nigerian Copyright Commission
(NCC), Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), Nigeria
Immigration Service (NIS), Nigerian Custom Service (NCS), Nigeria

Security and Civil Defense Corps (NSCDC), Nigeria Prisons Service
(NPS), National Taskforce (Natforce) Nigeria, Defense Intelligence
Agency (DIA), local vigilante and other private security centers or
institutions. All these agencies contribute to the control of criminal
activities in Enugu state. However for the sake of this study we have
considered only some selected security outfits.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poverty, economic stagnation or declines, unequal access to rights and
resources, the absence of effective welfare infrastructure, the collapse of
law, exposure of crime; all generate instability and vulnerability to
conflict (DFID 2000).More also, poverty reduction and development of
democracy in Nigeria will be better enhanced when the security of the
citizen is guaranteed. It has been noted that the cost of crime and its
control is equivalent to 5% GDP in the developed world, the figure rises
to about 14% in developing nation (ICPC 1999). This could be attributed
to the constantly increasing criminal activities in the country caused by
the increasing hardship and poverty. Nevertheless, the Nigeria corporate
existence can be undermined by a number of factors among which is an
escalating and uncontrolled crime problem (Tanimu, 2006).
The lack of security affects the welfare of both the poor and the rich. It
can cause injury and death, reduce family income and generate a climate
of fear (DFID 2000). Its importance is therefore eminent on any
population. Nigeria as a nation has faced several security threats that
range from thefts to cultism, kidnappings and terrorism amongst others.
Regional insecurity includes the Niger Delta Militancy and the operations
of the Boko Haram sect. This has led to putting in place of several
security outfits to curb criminal activities and most of them are at the
national level yet the security outcomes differ from state to state.
Taking the example of Enugu State, it is believed that the level of
cooperation (or lack of it) of the people of the State could be a direct
function of their perception of the effectiveness of the various security
agencies. On the other hand, the effectiveness of the performances of the
various security agencies in the state may also depend on the cooperation
of the people of the State. The interdependence of the two variables
makes it necessary to investigate the people’s perception of the
effectiveness of the available security outfits in Enugu State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study was to examine the public perception of
the effectiveness of selected security outfits in the control of criminal
activities in Enugu State. The specific objectives were therefore translated
from the research questions and were stated as:
i) To determine the public perception of the various security outfits
by residents of Enugu State.
ii) To establish if the public perception of security outfits in Enugu
state were related to public patronage in crime prevention, control and
management.
iii) To examine to what extent, public perception of security outfits in
Enugu has impacted on utilization
iv) To investigate the socio-economic determinants of the perceptions
of the residents in Enugu.
1.4 Research Questions
a) How do members of the public perceive the various security outfits
in Enugu?
b) Which of the existing security outfits would members of the public
rely upon to control crime?
c) To what extent has the public perception of security outfit in Enugu
impacted on utilisation?
d) What are the socio-economic determinants of the public
perceptions of the security outfits?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
The hypotheses were stated according to the Null while the alternatives
were inferred.
i) There exist no relation between public perception of security outfits
in Enugu state and public patronage in crime prevention, control and
management.
ii) There exists no significant impact of public perception of security
outfit on utilization in Enugu
iii) There exist no significant socio-economic determinants of the
perceptions of the residents in Enugu.
1.6 Significance of the study
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Investment report showed
that the effects of the insurgencies in Nigeria by militants groups have
adversely dipped the nation’s foreign direct investment to 21 per cent in
2012 (Onyeka, 2013). Nigeria has been known for several and different
dimensions of insecurity. This does not only mean that the indigenes are
not safe, it also means that foreigners become scared to visit Nigeria for
investment, tourism and otherwise. Achumba and Ighomereho (2013)
opine that the insecurity challenge in the country is enormous and
complex and would continue to be, if the situationremains unabated.

This study investigated the public perception of the effectiveness of
selected security outfits in control of criminal activities in Enugu state.
The findings would therefore aid administrators to know which of the
security outfits are more effective in controlling criminal activities in
Nigeria and those that are not. The study will also aid policy makers to
know performing and non-performing security outfits and attempt to
design policies that will strengthen the weak ones and maintain the
performing ones. The study equally contributes to knowledge and
therefore adds to existing literature.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study concentrated on Enugu State located in the South East of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria. The study focused on some selected security
outfits which include; the Nigerian Police, the Nigerian Army, Nigerian
Security and Civil Defence Corps, State Security Service, Local Vigilante
and others that have been named by the respondents.

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