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1.1 Background of the Study
During the colonial era, the abundant natural resources in the rural areas were exploited without any attempt to develop such areas. Development projects were concentrated in the few urban centers and any extension of such development effort was to facilitate their administrative convenience. The rural areas served as sources of cheap and most often forced labor. Dike (1992), need that though the road and river ordinance, the warrant chiefs were empowered to order communities to provide up paid compulsory labor for the construction and maintenance of access roads and other services. The different attempts to development culminated in the 1976 local government reforms which main proclaimed objective was to bring government operating at the grass roots, a development process that would improve the lot of the rural populace were triggered off.
Rural sector in Nigeria, public policy was consistently employed and this “increased agricultural development (Hall, 2000, OnokerHoraye and Okafor, 1991 and Tom (1991). The assumption was that increase in agricultural output would lead to rural income and improvement in the livelihood of people especially the NsugbeAnambra East Anambra state individuals. However, Okpula (1980) disagrees and argues that the prevailing public policy emphasis its increased in agricultural out-put and productivity as the main goal of rural development, is at variance with the communities perception of which constitutes their development. It is obvious from the above position, that the rural dwellers do not share government as enthrisium for agriculture development. They frequently do not adopt the type of rural development proposals, proagrammes and projects that are exposed in the official natural development programmes.
As Olisa (1992) rightly observed over 80% of the country’s population are living in the rural areas and are engaged in agriculture, yet the country’s internal food supply relative to domestic demands, has been consistently on a steep decline. Another way of starting the Nigerian rural development dilemma, Lisa(1945) further stated is that all the agricultural and industrial projects started in all corners of Nigeria since 1950s to the present were successful and in active production today, the country would be recording substantial food supply and much of its rural areas would have undergone substantial transformation.
These efforts of developing the rural areas in Nigeria have not yielded the desired results, due largely to their inability to accelerate the development of the sector. The initiatives failed because of the exclusion of the people not only from policy making and planning but also from implementation. Other attendant factors for the low level of development of the rural areas include the failure to harness available resources within the rural areas, inability to sustain their programmes, managerial problems and the failure to take into cognizance the socio-cultural background and hastened experience of the benefiting rural communities. The complexity and enmity of the problems confronting the rural dwellers in Nigeria, call for a profound search or both the formulation of a more appropriate and enduring approach the problem is more than just technology and productive. It is the “social, cultural and economic issue responsible for under development that requires attention” (Altieri, 1995).
The consequent entrenchment of profit and centralized institutions of governance in society has continued to threaten the existential essence of man in his local and natural involvement. The Igbo were originally free from such centralized and despotic institution of governance. However, to facilitate government in Igbo land were the kingship institute was few to achieve uniformity with the test of the country, the columned mater created the “warrant chiefs” in 1916. The proliferation of kingship institution was thus engineered in an area of Nigeria where the predominant political organization was the “democratic village republic”. In which the traditional local institution for governance has been the age grade. However, the important thing is that all communities in Anambra East local government area Anambra state should agree on the need for an enhanced socio-economic political and cultural life of the community.
Agreeably, government alone cannot provide these services Julius Nyerere had said “that if people realize that their suffering is not the will of God, they will make efforts and sacrifices. It could have been thus realization that spurred non-governmental organizations in Anambra East local government into action. But while non-governmental bodies are making efforts towards improving the living condition of Anambra East populace, it must be stressed that there is need for adequate government participation in their development bid.
Credence is said to these when one looks at the United Nations definition and community development. Community development also rural development is the process by which the affairs of the people themselves are united with those of government authorities to improve the economic social and cultural. Conditions of communities to integrate these communities, into the life of the nations and to enable them to contribute fully to national process community development by this definition, ought to be a joint effort between government and the people of the rural communities.
1.2 Statement of Problem
A common task facing developing and under developed nations today including Nigeria is the development of rural area. Development of the rural areas or communities means an improvement or advancement in the socio-economic political and cultural life style of people. In most rural communities including Anambra East local government area, there is insignificant provision of basic human needs like Hospitals, pipe borne water,tarred and motor able, roads, schools etc, by government. This attitude on the part of government creates an impression in the minds of people that they are not part of the body polities.
The non-development problem of rural areas spreads across all state of Nigeria but is more pronounced in Anambra East local government area. In this community there is object neglect of provision of these facilities by government.
This study attempted at identifyingthe scope of developmental projects undertaken by non-governmental organization in Anambra East local government area. Thus, the researcher investigated the role of Nwannebuife age grade in promoting rural development in Nsugbe.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were relevant to the study.
1. To find the roles of Nwannebuife Age Grade group to rural development in Nsugbe.
2. To determine some of their experiences in developing rural areas in Nsugbe.
3. To make recommendations which will foster harmonies relationship between the Nwannebuife Age Grade and the Nsugbe commonly in rural development?
1.4 Research Questions
The following are relevant research questions
1. What are the roles of the Nwannebuife age grade institutions in the development of communities in Nsugbe in Anambra State?
2. To find how to analyze the interface of the Nwannebuife age grade institutions with a view of understanding the nature of rural development in Nsugbe?
3. To what extent does the project aim at determining some of their experiences in developing rural areas?
4. How can one make recommendations to foster harmonies relationship between the Nwannebuife age grade and the Nsugbe community in rural development?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Nwannebuife age grade has roles in rural development of Nsugbe.
Hi: Nwannebuife has no role in rural development in Nsugbe
Ho: It is impossible to analyze the interface of Nwannebuife age grade institution with a view of understanding the nature of rural development in Nsugbe community in Anambra State.
Hii: It is possible to analyze interface of Nwannebuife age grade institution with a view of understanding the nature of rural development in Nigeria community in Anambra state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The essence of this study is to draw the attention of the local, state and federal government on rural development using the people.
This research draws the attention of government to the need for stepping up their matching, rather as well as provision of human and material assistance to communities in Anambra East local government area who are embarking of the developmental project.
Finally, this research will aid structure towards making further research in their area as well as serve as an invaluable source of information on Anambra East Community and libraries.
1.7 Scope of Study
The study is focused on the role of Nwannebuife age grade in promoting rural development in Nsugbe community, Anambra east local government area in Anambra state. The studies will emphasis on the positive and negative roles of the Nwannebuife age grade in Nsugbe community with a proper background.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Operational definitions were used
Role: people’s task or duty in an undertaking
Non-Governmental:Any group set up that is outside direct government control or involvement.
Organization: They are social and technical devices or instrument that helps in the accomplishment of goods that are too large and complex to be handled by one person.
Community: A territorially bounded social system within which people live in harmony love, intimacy and share common social, economic and cultural characteristics.
Development: A continuous process of positive change I the quality and span of life of a person or group of persons.
Government: An authoritative unit of the state which has the sole function of achieving the ends of the state –provision of welfare services, maintenance of law and order and establishing and maintaining of relations with similar units in other state.
Environment: The environment have (external internal) means Nsugbe community, Anambra East local government Anambra state.
Inputs: The inputs in the senses relates to human material resources, and financial needs ere emulating from the environment.
Conversion process: the conversion process refers to all agents’ development in the community non-governmental organization leaders in the community and all those with positive disposition on the conversation process within the community.
Outputs: the reactions from the conversation process give birth to outputs which manifest on the form of development projects and their execution.
Feedback: This has to do with the degree of response to input out relationship which reads either in support of the system or its rejection in environment.